Germany 2016/17


1. Bundesliga
2. Bundesliga
3. Bundesliga

1. Bundesliga

Final Table:

 1.FC Bayern München            34  25  7  2  89-22  82  [C]  Champions
 2.RB Leipzig                   34  20  7  7  66-39  67  [P]
 3.Borussia Dortmund            34  18 10  6  72-40  64
 4.TSG 1899 Hoffenheim          34  16 14  4  64-37  60
 5.1.FC Köln                    34  12 13  9  51-42  49
 6.Hertha BSC Berlin            34  15  4 15  43-47  49
 7.SC Freiburg                  34  14  6 14  42-60  48  [P]
 8.SV Werder Bremen             34  13  6 15  61-64  45
 9.Borussia Mönchengladbach     34  12  9 13  45-49  45
10.FC Schalke 04 Gelsenkirchen  34  11 10 13  45-40  43
11.Eintracht Frankfurt          34  11  9 14  36-43  42
12.Bayer 04 Leverkusen          34  11  8 15  53-55  41
13.FC Augsburg                  34   9 11 14  35-51  38
14.Hamburger SV                 34  10  8 16  33-61  38
15.1.FSV Mainz 05               34  10  7 17  44-55  37
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
16.VfL Wolfsburg                34  10  7 17  34-52  37       Relegation Playoff
-------------------------------------------------------
17.FC Ingolstadt 04             34   8  8 18  36-57  32       Relegated
18.SV Darmstadt 98              34   7  4 23  28-63  25       Relegated

Round 1
[Aug 26]
Bayern          6-0 Bremen          
[Aug 27]
Köln            2-0 Darmstadt       
Dortmund        2-1 Mainz           
Frankfurt       1-0 Schalke         
Augsburg        0-2 Wolfsburg       
Hamburg         1-1 Ingolstadt      
Mönchengladbach 2-1 Leverkusen      
[Aug 28]
Hertha          2-1 Freiburg        
Hoffenheim      2-2 Leipzig         

Round 2
[Sep 9]
Schalke         0-2 Bayern          
[Sep 10]
Leverkusen      3-1 Hamburg         
Ingolstadt      0-2 Hertha          
Freiburg        3-1 Mönchengladbach 
Darmstadt       1-0 Frankfurt       
Wolfsburg       0-0 Köln            
Leipzig         1-0 Dortmund        
[Sep 11]
Bremen          1-2 Augsburg        
Mainz           4-4 Hoffenheim      

Round 3
[Sep 16]
Köln            3-0 Freiburg        
[Sep 17]
Bayern          3-1 Ingolstadt      
Dortmund        6-0 Darmstadt       
Frankfurt       2-1 Leverkusen      
Hamburg         0-4 Leipzig         
Hoffenheim      0-0 Wolfsburg       
Mönchengladbach 4-1 Bremen          
[Sep 18]
Augsburg        1-3 Mainz           
Hertha          2-0 Schalke         

Round 4
[Sep 20]
Ingolstadt      0-2 Frankfurt       
Freiburg        1-0 Hamburg         
Darmstadt       1-1 Hoffenheim      
Wolfsburg       1-5 Dortmund        
[Sep 21]
Leverkusen      0-0 Augsburg        
Bayern          3-0 Hertha          
Leipzig         1-1 Mönchengladbach 
Schalke         1-3 Köln            
Bremen          1-2 Mainz           

Round 5
[Sep 23]
Dortmund        3-1 Freiburg        
[Sep 24]
Mainz           2-3 Leverkusen      
Mönchengladbach 2-0 Ingolstadt      
Frankfurt       3-3 Hertha          
Augsburg        1-0 Darmstadt       
Hamburg         0-1 Bayern          
Bremen          2-1 Wolfsburg       
[Sep 25]
Hoffenheim      2-1 Schalke         
Köln            1-1 Leipzig         

Round 6
[Sep 30]
Leipzig         2-1 Augsburg        
[Oct 1]
Bayern          1-1 Köln            
Ingolstadt      1-2 Hoffenheim      
Hertha          2-0 Hamburg         
Freiburg        1-0 Frankfurt       
Darmstadt       2-2 Bremen          
Leverkusen      2-0 Dortmund        
[Oct 2]
Wolfsburg       0-0 Mainz           
Schalke         4-0 Mönchengladbach 

Round 7
[Oct 14]
Dortmund        1-1 Hertha          
[Oct 15]
Köln            2-1 Ingolstadt      
Mönchengladbach 0-0 Hamburg         
Frankfurt       2-2 Bayern          
Augsburg        1-1 Schalke         
Hoffenheim      2-1 Freiburg        
Bremen          2-1 Leverkusen      
[Oct 16]
Mainz           2-1 Darmstadt       
Wolfsburg       0-1 Leipzig         

Round 8
[Oct 21]
Hamburg         0-3 Frankfurt       
[Oct 22]
Leverkusen      0-3 Hoffenheim      
Ingolstadt      3-3 Dortmund        
Hertha          2-1 Köln            
Freiburg        2-1 Augsburg        
Darmstadt       3-1 Wolfsburg       
Bayern          2-0 Mönchengladbach 
[Oct 23]
Leipzig         3-1 Bremen          
Schalke         3-0 Mainz           

Round 9
[Oct 28]
Mönchengladbach 0-0 Frankfurt       
[Oct 29]
Mainz           2-0 Ingolstadt      
Augsburg        1-3 Bayern          
Darmstadt       0-2 Leipzig         
Wolfsburg       1-2 Leverkusen      
Bremen          1-3 Freiburg        
Dortmund        0-0 Schalke         
[Oct 30]
Hoffenheim      1-0 Hertha          
Köln            3-0 Hamburg         

Round 10
[Nov 4]
Hertha          3-0 Mönchengladbach 
[Nov 5]
Leverkusen      3-2 Darmstadt       
Bayern          1-1 Hoffenheim      
Ingolstadt      0-2 Augsburg        
Hamburg         2-5 Dortmund        
Freiburg        0-3 Wolfsburg       
Frankfurt       1-0 Köln            
[Nov 6]
Leipzig         3-1 Mainz           
Schalke         3-1 Bremen          

Round 11
[Nov 18]
Leverkusen      2-3 Leipzig         
[Nov 19]
Mainz           4-2 Freiburg        
Mönchengladbach 1-2 Köln            
Augsburg        0-0 Hertha          
Darmstadt       0-1 Ingolstadt      
Wolfsburg       0-1 Schalke         
Dortmund        1-0 Bayern          
[Nov 20]
Hoffenheim      2-2 Hamburg         
Bremen          1-2 Frankfurt       

Round 12
[Nov 25]
Freiburg        1-4 Leipzig         
[Nov 26]
Köln            0-0 Augsburg        
Mönchengladbach 1-1 Hoffenheim      
Frankfurt       2-1 Dortmund        
Ingolstadt      1-1 Wolfsburg       
Hamburg         2-2 Bremen          
Bayern          2-1 Leverkusen      
[Nov 27]
Schalke         3-1 Darmstadt       
Hertha          2-1 Mainz           

Round 13
[Dec 2]
Mainz           1-3 Bayern          
[Dec 3]
Leverkusen      1-1 Freiburg        
Dortmund        4-1 Mönchengladbach 
Hoffenheim      4-0 Köln            
Wolfsburg       2-3 Hertha          
Bremen          2-1 Ingolstadt      
Leipzig         2-1 Schalke         
[Dec 4]
Darmstadt       0-2 Hamburg         
Augsburg        1-1 Frankfurt       

Round 14
[Dec 9]
Frankfurt       0-0 Hoffenheim      
[Dec 10]
Köln            1-1 Dortmund        
Bayern          5-0 Wolfsburg       
Ingolstadt      1-0 Leipzig         
Hamburg         1-0 Augsburg        
Freiburg        1-0 Darmstadt       
Hertha          0-1 Bremen          
[Dec 11]
Mönchengladbach 1-0 Mainz           
Schalke         0-1 Leverkusen      

Round 15
[Dec 16]
Hoffenheim      2-2 Dortmund        
[Dec 17]
Mainz           3-1 Hamburg         
Augsburg        1-0 Mönchengladbach 
Leipzig         2-0 Hertha          
Schalke         1-1 Freiburg        
Bremen          1-1 Köln            
Wolfsburg       1-0 Frankfurt       
[Dec 18]
Darmstadt       0-1 Bayern          
Leverkusen      1-2 Ingolstadt      

Round 16
[Dec 20]
Dortmund        1-1 Augsburg        
Mönchengladbach 1-2 Wolfsburg       
Frankfurt       3-0 Mainz           
Hamburg         2-1 Schalke         
[Dec 21]
Köln            1-1 Leverkusen      
Bayern          3-0 Leipzig         
Ingolstadt      1-2 Freiburg        
Hertha          2-0 Darmstadt       
Hoffenheim      1-1 Bremen          

Round 17
[Jan 20]
Freiburg        1-2 Bayern          
[Jan 21]
Augsburg        0-2 Hoffenheim      
Schalke         1-0 Ingolstadt      
Darmstadt       0-0 Mönchengladbach 
Wolfsburg       1-0 Hamburg         
Bremen          1-2 Dortmund        
Leipzig         3-0 Frankfurt       
[Jan 22]
Leverkusen      3-1 Hertha          
Mainz           0-0 Köln            

Halfway Table:

 1.FC Bayern München            17  13  3  1  40-10  42  [C]
 2.RB Leipzig                   17  12  3  2  34-15  39  [P]
 3.TSG 1899 Hoffenheim          17   7 10  0  30-17  31
 4.Borussia Dortmund            17   8  6  3  37-20  30
 5.Hertha BSC Berlin            17   9  3  5  25-19  30
 6.Eintracht Frankfurt          17   8  5  4  22-15  29
 7.1.FC Köln                    17   6  8  3  21-15  26
 8.Bayer 04 Leverkusen          17   7  3  7  26-25  24
 9.SC Freiburg                  17   7  2  8  22-29  23  [P]
10.FC Schalke 04 Gelsenkirchen  17   6  3  8  21-19  21
11.1.FSV Mainz 05               17   6  3  8  26-30  21
12.VfL Wolfsburg                17   5  4  8  16-24  19
13.FC Augsburg                  17   4  6  7  13-19  18
14.Borussia Mönchengladbach     17   4  5  8  15-25  17
15.SV Werder Bremen             17   4  4  9  21-36  16
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
16.Hamburger SV                 17   3  4 10  14-32  13
-------------------------------------------------------
17.FC Ingolstadt 04             17   3  3 11  14-28  12
18.SV Darmstadt 98              17   2  3 12  11-30   9

Round 18
[Jan 27]
Schalke         0-1 Frankfurt       
[Jan 28]
Ingolstadt      3-1 Hamburg         
Leipzig         2-1 Hoffenheim      
Darmstadt       1-6 Köln            
Wolfsburg       1-2 Augsburg        
Bremen          1-2 Bayern          
Leverkusen      2-3 Mönchengladbach 
[Jan 29]
Freiburg        2-1 Hertha          
Mainz           1-1 Dortmund        

Round 19
[Feb 3]
Hamburg         1-0 Leverkusen      
[Feb 4]
Hertha          1-0 Ingolstadt      
Mönchengladbach 3-0 Freiburg        
Köln            1-0 Wolfsburg       
Hoffenheim      4-0 Mainz           
Bayern          1-1 Schalke         
Dortmund        1-0 Leipzig         
[Feb 5]
Augsburg        3-2 Bremen          
Frankfurt       2-0 Darmstadt       

Round 20
[Feb 10]
Mainz           2-0 Augsburg        
[Feb 11]
Ingolstadt      0-2 Bayern          
Leipzig         0-3 Hamburg         
Leverkusen      3-0 Frankfurt       
Bremen          0-1 Mönchengladbach 
Darmstadt       2-1 Dortmund        
Schalke         2-0 Hertha          
[Feb 12]
Wolfsburg       2-1 Hoffenheim      
Freiburg        2-1 Köln            

Round 21
[Feb 17]
Augsburg        1-3 Leverkusen      
[Feb 18]
Dortmund        3-0 Wolfsburg       
Frankfurt       0-2 Ingolstadt      
Hoffenheim      2-0 Darmstadt       
Mainz           0-2 Bremen          
Hertha          1-1 Bayern          
Hamburg         2-2 Freiburg        
[Feb 19]
Mönchengladbach 1-2 Leipzig         
Köln            1-1 Schalke         

Round 22
[Feb 24]
Wolfsburg       1-2 Bremen          
[Feb 25]
Leipzig         3-1 Köln            
Darmstadt       1-2 Augsburg        
Bayern          8-0 Hamburg         
Freiburg        0-3 Dortmund        
Leverkusen      0-2 Mainz           
Hertha          2-0 Frankfurt       
[Feb 26]
Ingolstadt      0-2 Mönchengladbach 
Schalke         1-1 Hoffenheim      

Round 23
[Mar 3]
Augsburg        2-2 Leipzig         
[Mar 4]
Dortmund        6-2 Leverkusen      
Hoffenheim      5-2 Ingolstadt      
Bremen          2-0 Darmstadt       
Mainz           1-1 Wolfsburg       
Köln            0-3 Bayern          
Mönchengladbach 4-2 Schalke         
[Mar 5]
Frankfurt       1-2 Freiburg        
Hamburg         1-0 Hertha          

Round 24
[Mar 10]
Leverkusen      1-1 Bremen          
[Mar 11]
Bayern          3-0 Frankfurt       
Hertha          2-1 Dortmund        
Freiburg        1-1 Hoffenheim      
Darmstadt       2-1 Mainz           
Leipzig         0-1 Wolfsburg       
Ingolstadt      2-2 Köln            
[Mar 12]
Schalke         3-0 Augsburg        
Hamburg         2-1 Mönchengladbach 

Round 25
[Mar 17]
Dortmund        1-0 Ingolstadt      
[Mar 18]
Bremen          3-0 Leipzig         
Wolfsburg       1-0 Darmstadt       
Köln            4-2 Hertha          
Hoffenheim      1-0 Leverkusen      
Augsburg        1-1 Freiburg        
Frankfurt       0-0 Hamburg         
[Mar 19]
Mainz           0-1 Schalke         
Mönchengladbach 0-1 Bayern          

Round 26
[Mar 31]
Hertha          1-3 Hoffenheim      
[Apr 1]
Freiburg        2-5 Bremen          
Leipzig         4-0 Darmstadt       
Hamburg         2-1 Köln            
Bayern          6-0 Augsburg        
Schalke         1-1 Dortmund        
Frankfurt       0-0 Mönchengladbach 
[Apr 2]
Ingolstadt      2-1 Mainz           
Leverkusen      3-3 Wolfsburg       

Round 27
[Apr 4]
Dortmund        3-0 Hamburg         
Köln            1-0 Frankfurt       
Bremen          3-0 Schalke         
Hoffenheim      1-0 Bayern          
[Apr 5]
Augsburg        2-3 Ingolstadt      
Wolfsburg       0-1 Freiburg        
Mönchengladbach 1-0 Hertha          
Darmstadt       0-2 Leverkusen      
Mainz           2-3 Leipzig         

Round 28
[Apr 7]
Frankfurt       2-2 Bremen          
[Apr 8]
Köln            2-3 Mönchengladbach 
Freiburg        1-0 Mainz           
Schalke         4-1 Wolfsburg       
Leipzig         1-0 Leverkusen      
Hamburg         2-1 Hoffenheim      
Bayern          4-1 Dortmund        
[Apr 9]
Hertha          2-0 Augsburg        
Ingolstadt      3-2 Darmstadt       

Round 29
[Apr 15]
Augsburg        2-1 Köln            
Wolfsburg       3-0 Ingolstadt      
Mainz           1-0 Hertha          
Dortmund        3-1 Frankfurt       
Leipzig         4-0 Freiburg        
Hoffenheim      5-3 Mönchengladbach 
Leverkusen      0-0 Bayern          
[Apr 16]
Bremen          2-1 Hamburg         
Darmstadt       2-1 Schalke         

Round 30
[Apr 21]
Köln            1-1 Hoffenheim      
[Apr 22]
Hertha          1-0 Wolfsburg       
Hamburg         1-2 Darmstadt       
Bayern          2-2 Mainz           
Frankfurt       3-1 Augsburg        
Ingolstadt      2-4 Bremen          
Mönchengladbach 2-3 Dortmund        
[Apr 23]
Freiburg        2-1 Leverkusen      
Schalke         1-1 Leipzig         

Round 31
[Apr 28]
Leverkusen      1-4 Schalke         
[Apr 29]
Darmstadt       3-0 Freiburg        
Dortmund        0-0 Köln            
Mainz           1-2 Mönchengladbach 
Bremen          2-0 Hertha          
Leipzig         0-0 Ingolstadt      
Wolfsburg       0-6 Bayern          
[Apr 30]
Augsburg        4-0 Hamburg         
Hoffenheim      1-0 Frankfurt       

Round 32
[May 5]
Köln            4-3 Bremen          
[May 6]
Ingolstadt      1-1 Leverkusen      
Bayern          1-0 Darmstadt       
Dortmund        2-1 Hoffenheim      
Mönchengladbach 1-1 Augsburg        
Frankfurt       0-2 Wolfsburg       
Hertha          1-4 Leipzig         
[May 7]
Hamburg         0-0 Mainz           
Freiburg        2-0 Schalke         

Round 33 [May 13]
Augsburg        1-1 Dortmund        
Leverkusen      2-2 Köln            
Schalke         1-1 Hamburg         
Wolfsburg       1-1 Mönchengladbach 
Bremen          3-5 Hoffenheim      
Freiburg        1-1 Ingolstadt      
Leipzig         4-5 Bayern          
Darmstadt       0-2 Hertha          
Mainz           4-2 Frankfurt       

Round 34 [May 20]
Hertha          2-6 Leverkusen      
Ingolstadt      1-1 Schalke         
Frankfurt       2-2 Leipzig         
Mönchengladbach 2-2 Darmstadt       
Bayern          4-1 Freiburg        
Hoffenheim      0-0 Augsburg        
Hamburg         2-1 Wolfsburg       
Köln            2-0 Mainz           
Dortmund        4-3 Bremen          

Final Table:

 1.FC Bayern München            34  25  7  2  89-22  82  [C]  Champions
 2.RB Leipzig                   34  20  7  7  66-39  67  [P]
 3.Borussia Dortmund            34  18 10  6  72-40  64
 4.TSG 1899 Hoffenheim          34  16 14  4  64-37  60
 5.1.FC Köln                    34  12 13  9  51-42  49
 6.Hertha BSC Berlin            34  15  4 15  43-47  49
 7.SC Freiburg                  34  14  6 14  42-60  48  [P]
 8.SV Werder Bremen             34  13  6 15  61-64  45
 9.Borussia Mönchengladbach     34  12  9 13  45-49  45
10.FC Schalke 04 Gelsenkirchen  34  11 10 13  45-40  43
11.Eintracht Frankfurt          34  11  9 14  36-43  42
12.Bayer 04 Leverkusen          34  11  8 15  53-55  41
13.FC Augsburg                  34   9 11 14  35-51  38
14.Hamburger SV                 34  10  8 16  33-61  38
15.1.FSV Mainz 05               34  10  7 17  44-55  37
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
16.VfL Wolfsburg                34  10  7 17  34-52  37       Relegation Playoff
-------------------------------------------------------
17.FC Ingolstadt 04             34   8  8 18  36-57  32       Relegated
18.SV Darmstadt 98              34   7  4 23  28-63  25       Relegated

Promotion/Relegation Playoff 1./2. Bundesliga

First Leg [May 25]
Wolfsburg       1-0 Braunschweig    

Second Leg [May 29]
Braunschweig    0-1 Wolfsburg       

NB: both remain at former level


2. Bundesliga

Final Table:

 1.VfB Stuttgart                34  21  6  7  63-37  69  [R]  Promoted
 2.Hannover 96                  34  19 10  5  51-32  67  [R]  Promoted
-------------------------------------------------------
 3.Eintracht Braunschweig       34  19  9  6  50-36  66       Promotion Playoff
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 4.1. FC Union Berlin           34  18  6 10  51-39  60
 5.Dynamo Dresden               34  13 11 10  53-46  50  [P]
 6.1. FC Heidenheim             34  12 10 12  43-39  46
 7.FC Sankt Pauli               34  12  9 13  39-35  45
 8.SpVgg Greuther Fürth         34  12  9 13  33-40  45
 9.VfL Bochum                   34  10 14 10  42-47  44
10.SV Sandhausen                34  10 12 12  41-36  42
11.Fortuna Düsseldorf           34  10 12 12  37-39  42
12.1.FC Nürnberg                34  12  6 16  46-52  42
13.1.FC Kaiserslautern          34  10 11 13  29-33  41
14.FC Erzgebirge Aue            34  10  9 15  37-52  39  [P]
15.DSC Arminia Bielefeld        34   8 13 13  50-54  37
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
16.TSV 1860 München             34  10  6 18  37-47  36       Relegation Playoff
-------------------------------------------------------
17.FC Würzburger Kickers        34   7 13 14  32-41  34  [P]  Relegated
18.Karlsruher SC                34   5 10 19  27-56  25       Relegated

Promotion/Relegation Playoff 2./3. Bundesliga

First Leg [May 26]
Regensburg      1-1 1860 München    

Second Leg [May 30]
1860 München    0-2 Regensburg      

NB: TSV 1860 München relegated, Jahn Regensburg promoted;
    as TSV 1860 München cannot fulful the license conditions for the third level,
    they are demoted to the fourth level


3. Bundesliga

Final Table:

 1.MSV Duisburg                 38  18 14  6  52-32  68        [R]  Promoted
 2.Holstein Kiel                38  18 13  7  59-25  67             Promoted
-------------------------------------------------------
 3.Jahn Regensburg              38  18  9 11  62-50  63        [P]  Promotion Playoff
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 4.1.FC Magdeburg               38  16 13  9  53-36  61
 5.FSV Zwickau                  38  16  8 14  47-54  56        [P]
 6.VfL Osnabrück                38  15  9 14  46-43  54
 7.SV Wehen Wiesbaden           38  14 11 13  45-42  53
 8.Chemnitzer FC                38  14 10 14  54-51  52
 9.SC Preußen Münster           38  15  6 17  49-43  51
10.SG Sonnenhof Großaspach      38  14  9 15  48-48  51
11.VfR Aalen                    38  14 15  9  52-36  48  [-9]
12.Sportfreunde Lotte           38  13  9 16  46-47  48        [P]
13.Hallescher FC                38  10 18 10  34-39  48
14.Rot-Weiß Erfurt              38  12 11 15  34-47  47
15.FC Hansa Rostock             38  10 16 12  44-46  46
16.Fortuna Köln                 38  12 10 16  37-59  46
17.SV Werder Bremen II          38  12  9 17  32-48  45
-------------------------------------------------------
18.SC Paderborn 07              38  12  8 18  38-57  44        [R]
19.1.FSV Mainz 05 II            38  11  7 20  41-58  40             Relegated
20.FSV Frankfurt                38   7 13 18  38-50  25  [-9]  [R]  Relegated

NB: VfR Aalen and FSV Frankfurt 9 points deducted for infringements of licensing conditions

NB: SC Paderborn were relegated for the third season in succession; however, they were
    reprieved following the forced demotion of 1860 München to the amateur level

Promotion Playoffs for 3. Bundesliga

First Legs [May 28]
Unterhaching    3-0 Elversberg      
Waldhof         0-0 Meppen          
Viktoria Köln   2-3 Carl Zeiss Jena 

Second Legs
[May 31]
Elversberg      2-2 Unterhaching    
Meppen          0-0 Waldhof         [aet, 4-3 pen]
[Jun 1]
Carl Zeiss Jena 0-1 Viktoria Köln   

NB: SpVgg Unterhaching, SV Meppen and Carl Zeiss Jena promoted


2015/16

2017/18

list of champions

all-time table

list of 2nd level champions

list of amateur champions

oberliga berlin 1945-1963

oberliga nord 1945-1963

oberliga süd 1945-1963

oberliga südwest 1945-1963

oberliga südwest süd 1945-1950

oberliga west 1945-1963

regionalliga nord 63-74

regionalliga süd 63-74

regionalliga west 63-74

list of cup finals

list of super and league cup finals

list of topscorers

list of 2nd level topscorers

list of foundation dates


About this document

Prepared and maintained by Karel Stokkermans for the Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation

Author: Karel Stokkermans
Last updated: 31 Aug 2017

(C) Copyright Karel Stokkermans and RSSSF 2016/17
You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All rights reserved.