Tajikistan 2020


Ligai olii Toçikiston
Tajik Cup
FFT Cup
Tajik League Cup
Ligai jakumi Toçikiston

Ligai olii Toçikiston

Table:

 1.Istiklol (Duşanbe)              14  13  1  0  57- 7  40  [C]
 2.FK Xuçand (Xuçand)              14   9  2  3  23-16  29
 3.Khatlon (Bokhtar)               14   6  5  3  23-19  23
 4.Kuktoş (Rudaki)                 14   5  5  4  21-18  20
 5.KMVA (Duşanbe)                  14   5  5  4  21-20  20  [*]
 6.Duşanbe-83 (Duşanbe)            14   4  4  6  16-23  16  [P]
 7.Fajzkand (Hulbuk)               14   3  6  5  13-24  15  [P]
 8.Lokomotiv-Pomir (Duşanbe)       14   2  4  8  11-22  10  [P]
 9.Istaravşan (Istaravşan)         14   2  3  9  17-33   9
10.Regar-TadAZ (Tursunzade)        14   2  3  9  17-37   9
[*] KMVA Pomir (aka CSKA Pamir or SSKA Pamir in Russian) were renamed KMVA

Round 1
[Apr 5]
Lokomotiv    2-2 Fajzkand     
Khatlon      2-1 Istaravşan   
Kuktoş       0-0 Regar-TadAZ  
[Apr 8]
KMVA         1-3 Xuçand       
Duşanbe-83   0-7 Istiklol     

Round 2
[Apr 11]
Fajzkand     3-2 Regar-TadAZ  
Istaravşan   0-3 Kuktoş       
Lokomotiv    1-0 Duşanbe-83   
[Apr 12]
Xuçand       2-3 Khatlon      
Istiklol     2-0 KMVA         

Round 3
[Apr 18]
Duşanbe-83   0-0 Fajzkand     
Regar-TadAZ  4-1 Istaravşan   
[Apr 19]
KMVA         3-1 Lokomotiv    
Istiklol     2-2 Khatlon      
[Apr 22]
Kuktoş       1-1 Xuçand       

Round 4
[Apr 25]
Fajzkand     2-1 Istaravşan   
Istiklol     6-1 Kuktoş       
[Apr 26]
Lokomotiv    2-3 Khatlon      
Duşanbe-83   2-1 KMVA         
Xuçand       2-1 Regar-TadAZ  

Round 5
[Jun 16]
KMVA         1-1 Fajzkand     
Regar-TadAZ  1-6 Istiklol     
Istaravşan   1-2 Xuçand       
[Jun 17]
Khatlon      1-0 Duşanbe-83   
Kuktoş       1-0 Lokomotiv    

Round 6
[Jun 20]
Fajzkand     0-3 Xuçand       
Istiklol     8-0 Istaravşan   
[Jun 21]
Lokomotiv    1-2 Regar-TadAZ  
Duşanbe-83   2-1 Kuktoş       
KMVA         2-1 Khatlon      

Round 7
[Jun 27]
Khatlon      1-1 Fajzkand     
Kuktoş       0-0 KMVA         
Istaravşan   2-0 Lokomotiv    
[Jun 28]
Regar-TadAZ  1-2 Duşanbe-83   
Xuçand       1-3 Istiklol     

Round 8
[Jul 4]
Fajzkand     0-4 Istiklol     
Lokomotiv    0-2 Xuçand       
Duşanbe-83   3-3 Istaravşan   
[Jul 5]
KMVA         3-1 Regar-TadAZ  
Khatlon      2-1 Kuktoş       

Round 9
[Jul 11]
Kuktoş       3-1 Fajzkand     
Regar-TadAZ  1-1 Khatlon      
Istaravşan   1-2 KMVA         
[Jul 12]
Xuçand       1-0 Duşanbe-83   
Istiklol     1-0 Lokomotiv    

Halfway Table:

 1.Istiklol (Duşanbe)               9   8  1  0  39- 5  25  [C]
 2.FK Xuçand (Xuçand)               9   6  1  2  17-10  19
 3.Khatlon (Bokhtar)                9   5  3  1  16-12  18
 4.KMVA (Duşanbe)                   9   4  2  3  13-12  14  [*]
 5.Kuktoş (Rudaki)                  9   3  3  3  11-12  12
 6.Duşanbe-83 (Duşanbe)             9   3  2  4   9-16  11  [P]
 7.Fajzkand (Hulbuk)                9   2  4  3  10-17  10  [P]
 8.Regar-TadAZ (Tursunzade)         9   2  2  5  13-19   8
 9.Lokomotiv-Pomir (Duşanbe)        9   1  1  7   7-16   4  [P]
10.Istaravşan (Istaravşan)          9   1  1  7  10-26   4
[*] KMVA Pomir (aka CSKA Pamir or SSKA Pamir in Russian) were renamed KMVA

Round 10
[Aug 8]
Fajzkand     0-0 Kuktoş       
Duşanbe-83   1-2 Xuçand       
Lokomotiv    0-3 Istiklol     
[Aug 9]
Khatlon      4-2 Regar-TadAZ  
KMVA         1-1 Istaravşan   

Round 11
[Aug 12]
Xuçand       0-0 Lokomotiv    
Regar-TadAZ  1-5 KMVA         
Istiklol     3-0 Fajzkand     
[Aug 13]
Istaravşan   2-0 Duşanbe-83   
Kuktoş       2-1 Khatlon      

Round 12
[Aug 15]
Istiklol     4-0 Xuçand       
[Aug 16]
KMVA         1-5 Kuktoş       
Duşanbe-83   3-0 Regar-TadAZ  
Fajzkand     2-1 Khatlon      
Lokomotiv    2-2 Istaravşan   

Round 13
[Aug 23]
Kuktoş       2-2 Duşanbe-83   
Regar-TadAZ  0-0 Lokomotiv    
[Aug 24]	 
Xuçand       2-0 Fajzkand     
Istaravşan   1-2 Istiklol     
Khatlon      0-0 KMVA         

Round 14
[Sep 7]
Duşanbe-83   1-1 Khatlon      
Fajzkand     1-1 KMVA         
[Sep 8]
Xuçand       2-1 Istaravşan   
Istiklol     6-1 Regar-TadAZ  
[Sep 11]
Lokomotiv    2-1 Kuktoş       

NB: round 15 to be played after round 17

Round 16
[Sep 19]
Fajzkand      -  Duşanbe-83   
Istaravşan    -  Regar-TadAZ  
Lokomotiv     -  KMVA         
[Sep 20]
Xuçand        -  Kuktoş       
Khatlon       -  Istiklol     

Table:

 1.Istiklol (Duşanbe)              14  13  1  0  57- 7  40  [C]
 2.FK Xuçand (Xuçand)              14   9  2  3  23-16  29
 3.Khatlon (Bokhtar)               14   6  5  3  23-19  23
 4.Kuktoş (Rudaki)                 14   5  5  4  21-18  20
 5.KMVA (Duşanbe)                  14   5  5  4  21-20  20  [*]
 6.Duşanbe-83 (Duşanbe)            14   4  4  6  16-23  16  [P]
 7.Fajzkand (Hulbuk)               14   3  6  5  13-24  15  [P]
 8.Lokomotiv-Pomir (Duşanbe)       14   2  4  8  11-22  10  [P]
 9.Istaravşan (Istaravşan)         14   2  3  9  17-33   9
10.Regar-TadAZ (Tursunzade)        14   2  3  9  17-37   9
[*] KMVA Pomir (aka CSKA Pamir or SSKA Pamir in Russian) were renamed KMVA

Round 17 
[Sep 26]
Kuktoş        -  Istaravşan   
Regar-TadAZ   -  Fajzkand     
[Sep 27]
KMVA          -  Istiklol     
Duşanbe-83    -  Lokomotiv    
Khatlon       -  Xuçand       

Round 15
[Sep 29]
Istaravşan    -  Fajzkand     
[Sep 30]
Khatlon       -  Lokomotiv    
KMVA          -  Duşanbe-83   
Kuktoş        -  Istiklol     
Regar-TadAZ   -  Xuçand       

Round 18 [Oct 2]
Fajzkand      -  Lokomotiv    
Istiklol      -  Duşanbe-83   
Xuçand        -  KMVA         
Istaravşan    -  Khatlon      
Regar-TadAZ   -  Kuktoş       


Tajik Cup 2020

Preliminary Round [Jul 7]
Hosilot      1-4 Mohir        
Saroykamar   awd Pançşer      [awarded 0-3; originally 2-1; Saroykamar made 4
Ravşan K     3-2 Hulbuk        substitutions]
Ravşan Z     6-1 Şohmansur    
Isfara       1-5 Esxata       
Vahdat       2-2 Barqcī       [0-3 pen]

NB: top level clubs bye to 1/8 Finals

1/8 Finals
[Aug 1]
Duşanbe-83   0-1 Regar-TadAZ  
Fajzkand     1-2 Khatlon      [aet]
Xuçand       0-3 Kuktoş       
[Aug 2]
Ravşan K     3-2 Pançşer      [aet]
Barqcī       1-2 Lokomotiv    
Istaravşan   3-1 KMVA         [aet]
[Aug 3]
Ravşan Z     1-4 Esxata       
Istiklol    11-0 Mohir        

Quarterfinals
[Sep 13]
Ravşan K     4-2 Istiklol     [aet]
Esxata       0-1 Khatlon      
[Sep 15]
Lokomotiv    2-4 Regar-TadAZ  
Istaravşan   1-1 Kuktoş       [aet, 5-4 pen]

Semifinals [Sep 22,23]
Ravşan K      -  Regar-TadAZ  
Khatlon       -  Istaravşan   


FFT Cup 2020

First Group Stage

Round 1
[Jan 31]
Kuktoş       1-2 Lokomotiv    
Istiklol    13-0 Şohmansur    
[Feb 1]
KMVA Pomir   3-0 Duşanbe-83   
Regar-TadAZ  6-0 Vahdat       

Round 2
[Feb 5]
Kuktoş       8-1 Şohmansur    
Istiklol     4-0 Lokomotiv    
[Feb 6]
KMVA Pomir   6-0 Vahdat       
Regar-TadAZ  1-1 Duşanbe-83   

Round 3
[Feb 8]
Lokomotiv   12-0 Şohmansur    
Istiklol     1-0 Kuktoş       
[Feb 9]
Vahdat      0-10 Duşanbe-83   
KMVA Pomir   awd Regar-TadAZ  [awarded 3-0; originally 2-3, Regar-TadaAZ fielded suspended player]

Final Tables:

Group A
 1.Istiklol (Duşanbe)               3   3  0  0  18- 0   9
 2.Lokomotiv-Pomir (Duşanbe)        3   2  0  1  14- 5   6  Qualified
 3.Kuktoş (Rudaki)                  3   1  0  2   9- 4   3  Qualified
 4.Şohmansur                        3   0  0  3   1-33   0
NB: Kuktoş qualified for second group stage as Istiklol withdrew because of
    a training camp in Turkey

Group B
 1.KMVA Pomir (Duşanbe)             3   3  0  0  12- 0   9  Qualified
 2.Duşanbe-83 (Duşanbe)             3   1  1  1  11- 4   4  Qualified
 3.Regar-TadAZ (Tursunzade)         3   1  1  1   7- 4   4
 4.FK Vahdat (Vahdat)               3   0  0  3   0-22   0

Second Group Stage

Round 1 [Feb 21]
Istaravşan   1-2 KMVA         
Ravshan      1-0 Lokomotiv    
Duşanbe-83   2-1 Esxata       
Khatlon      awd Kuktoş       [awarded 0-3; originally 4-0]

Round 2
[Feb 23]
Duşanbe-83   0-1 Kuktoş       
Khatlon      3-1 Esxata       
[Feb 24]
Istaravşan   1-2 Lokomotiv    
Ravshan      1-1 KMVA         

Round 3
[Feb 25]
Duşanbe-83   1-1 Khatlon      
Kuktoş       4-2 Esxata       
[Feb 26]
Lokomotiv    0-1 KMVA         
Istaravşan   2-3 Ravshan      

Final Tables:

Group A
 1.Ravshan (Kulob)                  3   2  1  0   5- 3   7
 2.KMVA (Duşanbe)                   3   2  1  0   4- 2   7  [*]
 3.Lokomotiv-Pomir (Duşanbe)        3   1  0  2   2- 3   3
 4.Istaravşan                       3   0  0  3   4- 7   0
[*] KMVA Pomir (aka CSKA Pamir or SSKA Pamir in Russian) were renamed KMVA

Group B
 1.Kuktoş (Rudaki)                  3   3  0  0   8- 2   9
 2.Duşanbe-83 (Duşanbe)             3   1  1  1   3- 3   4
 3.Khatlon (Bokhtar)                3   1  1  1   4- 5   4
 4.Esxata (Xuçand)                  3   0  0  3   4- 9   0

Semifinals [Feb 28]
Ravshan      4-1 Duşanbe-83   
Kuktoş       3-1 KMVA         

Third Place Match [Mar 1]
Duşanbe-83   3-2 KMVA         

Final [Mar 1, Central Republican Stadium, Dushanbe]
Ravshan      1-2 Kuktoş       


Tajik League Cup 2020

Group Stage

Round 1
[Mar 10]
Duşanbe-83   0-1 Kuktoş       
Khatlon      2-1 Regar-TadAZ  
Xuçand       0-6 KMVA         
[Mar 15]
Istiklol    0-10 Istaravşan   
Fajzkand     bye Lokomotiv    

Round 2 [Mar 12]
Kuktoş       3-2 Regar-TadAZ  
Fajzkand     9-3 Istiklol     
Duşanbe-83   1-0 Khatlon      
Lokomotiv    1-0 Xuçand       
Istaravşan   bye KMVA         

Round 3 [Mar 14]
Regar-TadAZ  0-1 Duşanbe-83   
Istaravşan   2-0 Fajzkand     
Khatlon      2-5 Kuktoş       
KMVA         1-0 Lokomotiv    
Istiklol     bye Xuçand       

Final Tables:

Group A
 1.Kuktoş (Rudaki)                  3   3  0  0   9- 4   9
 2.Duşanbe-83 (Duşanbe)             3   2  0  1   2- 1   6
 3.Khatlon (Bokhtar)                3   1  0  2   4- 7   3
 4.Regar-TadAZ (Tursunzade)         3   0  0  3   3- 6   0

Group B
 1.Istaravşan                       2   2  0  0  12- 0   6
 2.Fajzkand (Hulbuk)                2   1  0  1   9- 5   3
 3.Istiklol (Duşanbe)               2   0  0  2   3-19   0

Group C
 1.KMVA (Duşanbe)                   2   2  0  0   7- 0   6  [*]
 2.Lokomotiv-Pomir (Duşanbe)        2   1  0  1   1- 1   3
 3.FK Xuçand (Xuçand)               2   0  0  2   0- 7   0
[*] KMVA Pomir (aka CSKA Pamir or SSKA Pamir in Russian) were renamed KMVA

Semifinals [Mar 16]
Kuktoş       0-0 Istaravşan   [4-5 pen]
KMVA         1-1 Duşanbe-83   [4-2 pen]

Third Place Match [Mar 18]
Kuktoş       1-2 Duşanbe-83   

Final [Mar 18, Baxoriston Stadium, Baxoriston]
Istaravşan   2-1 KMVA         


Ligai jakumi Toçikiston

Table:

 1.Ravşan (Kulob)                  14  11  0  3  53-28  33
 2.Esxata (Xuçand)                 14  10  1  3  41-23  31
 3.Pançşer (Ç.Balxī)               15   7  5  3  33-18  26  [R]
 4.Ravşan (Zafarobod)              15   7  4  4  30-20  25  [P]
 5.Hulbuk (Hulbuk)                 15   7  3  5  30-25  24
 6.Vahdat (Vahdat)                 15   6  4  5  40-28  22
 7.Hosilot (Farxor)                14   6  2  6  25-23  20  [P]
 8.Isfara (Isfara)                 15   6  1  8  24-33  19
 9.Saroykamar (Panç)               15   5  3  7  33-36  18
10.Mohir (Jovon)                   15   5  2  8  30-50  17  [P]
11.Barqcī (Hisor)                  14   4  1  9  23-28  13
12.Şohmansur (Duşanbe)             15   0  2 13  10-60   2

Round 1
[Jun 25]
Pançşer      6-0 Şohmansur    
Esxata       5-4 Vahdat       
Ravşan K     6-2 Saroykamar   
[Jun 26]
Isfara       2-1 Ravşan Z     
Hosilot      2-3 Hulbuk       
Barqcī       3-4 Mohir        

Round 2
[Jul 2]
Ravşan Z     2-2 Mohir        
Saroykamar   1-0 Barqcī       
Şohmansur    0-4 Esxata       
[Jul 3]
Hulbuk       1-2 Ravşan K     
Vahdat       4-2 Hosilot      
Isfara       2-0 Pançşer      

Round 3
[Jul 11]
Ravşan K     4-3 Vahdat       
Barqcī       3-4 Hulbuk       
Mohir        2-5 Saroykamar   
Esxata       2-1 Isfara       
[Jul 12]
Pançşer      2-2 Ravşan Z     
Hosilot      3-1 Şohmansur    

Round 4
[Jul 16]
Hulbuk       2-4 Mohir        
Vahdat       3-2 Barqcī       
Pançşer      4-2 Esxata       
[Jul 17]
Ravşan Z     2-0 Saroykamar   
Şohmansur    3-8 Ravşan K     
Isfara       2-1 Hosilot      

Round 5
[Jul 21]
Hosilot      1-0 Pançşer      
Barqcī       4-0 Şohmansur    
[Jul 22]
Esxata       2-0 Ravşan Z     
Ravşan K     3-0 Isfara       
Mohir        5-4 Vahdat       
Saroykamar   2-2 Hulbuk       

Round 6
[Jul 25]
Vahdat       1-1 Saroykamar   
Şohmansur    0-0 Mohir        
Isfara       3-2 Barqcī       
Esxata       2-3 Hosilot      
[Jul 26]
Ravşan Z     1-0 Hulbuk       
Pançşer      4-1 Ravşan K     

Round 7
[Jul 29]
Ravşan K     3-0 Esxata       
Barqcī       1-1 Pançşer      
Hulbuk       2-1 Vahdat       
[Jul 30]
Hosilot      1-1 Ravşan Z     
Mohir        4-3 Isfara       
Saroykamar   6-2 Şohmansur    

Round 8
[Aug 6]
Şohmansur    0-2 Hulbuk       
Isfara       2-0 Saroykamar   
Pançşer      3-0 Mohir        
[Aug 7]
Ravşan Z     1-1 Vahdat       
Esxata       3-0 Barqcī       
Hosilot      1-4 Ravşan K     

Round 9
[Aug 13]
Ravşan K     6-2 Ravşan Z     
Barqcī       3-1 Hosilot      
Vahdat       7-1 Şohmansur    
[Aug 14]
Mohir        2-3 Esxata       
Saroykamar   2-0 Pançşer      
Hulbuk       3-1 Isfara       

Round 10
[Aug 20]
Isfara       1-3 Vahdat       
Pançşer      3-2 Hulbuk       
Esxata       6-3 Saroykamar   
[Aug 21]
Ravşan Z     8-0 Şohmansur    
Hosilot      5-0 Mohir        
Ravşan K     4-2 Barqcī       

Round 11
[Aug 27]
Barqcī       1-0 Ravşan Z     
Hulbuk       0-0 Esxata       
Vahdat       1-1 Pançşer      
Şohmansur    1-3 Isfara       
[Aug 28]
Mohir        2-5 Ravşan K     
Saroykamar   1-3 Hosilot      

Halfway Table:

 1.Ravşan (Kulob)                  11  10  0  1  46-20  30
 2.Esxata (Xuçand)                 11   7  1  3  29-20  22
 3.Isfara (Isfara)                 11   6  0  5  20-20  18
 4.Pançşer (Ç.Balxī)               11   5  3  3  24-14  18  [R]
 5.Hulbuk (Hulbuk)                 11   5  2  4  21-19  17
 6.Hosilot (Farxor)                11   5  1  5  23-21  16  [P]
 7.Vahdat (Vahdat)                 11   4  3  4  32-25  15
 8.Saroykamar (Panç)               11   4  2  5  23-26  14
 9.Mohir (Jovon)                   11   4  2  5  25-35  14  [P]
10.Ravşan (Zafarobod)              11   3  4  4  20-17  13  [P]
11.Barqcī (Hisor)                  11   3  1  7  21-24  10
12.Şohmansur (Duşanbe)             11   0  1 10   8-51   1

Round 12
[Sep 1]
Ravşan Z     2-0 Barqcī       
Ravşan K     5-4 Mohir        
Pançşer      0-0 Vahdat       
Isfara       0-0 Şohmansur    
[Sep 2]
Hosilot      1-1 Saroykamar   
Esxata       3-2 Hulbuk       

Round 13
[Sep 5]
Şohmansur    1-4 Ravşan Z     
Vahdat       5-1 Isfara       
Hulbuk       1-1 Pançşer      
[Sep 6]
Saroykamar   1-3 Esxata       
Mohir        1-0 Hosilot      
Barqcī       2-1 Ravşan K     

Round 14
[Sep 10]
Ravşan Z     2-1 Ravşan K     
Esxata       6-0 Mohir        
Isfara       1-3 Hulbuk       
[Sep 11]
Hosilot      1-0 Barqcī       
Pançşer      4-3 Saroykamar   
Şohmansur    0-2 Vahdat       

Round 15
[Sep 16]
Vahdat       1-2 Ravşan Z     
Hulbuk       3-1 Şohmansur    
Saroykamar   5-2 Isfara       
Mohir        0-4 Pançşer      
[Sep 17]
Barqcī        -  Esxata       
Ravşan K      -  Hosilot      

Round 16
[Sep 20]
Pançşer       -  Barqcī       
Isfara        -  Mohir        
Vahdat        -  Hulbuk       
[Sep 21]
Ravşan Z      -  Hosilot      
Esxata        -  Ravşan K     
Şohmansur     -  Saroykamar   

Table:

 1.Ravşan (Kulob)                  14  11  0  3  53-28  33
 2.Esxata (Xuçand)                 14  10  1  3  41-23  31
 3.Pançşer (Ç.Balxī)               15   7  5  3  33-18  26  [R]
 4.Ravşan (Zafarobod)              15   7  4  4  30-20  25  [P]
 5.Hulbuk (Hulbuk)                 15   7  3  5  30-25  24
 6.Vahdat (Vahdat)                 15   6  4  5  40-28  22
 7.Hosilot (Farxor)                14   6  2  6  25-23  20  [P]
 8.Isfara (Isfara)                 15   6  1  8  24-33  19
 9.Saroykamar (Panç)               15   5  3  7  33-36  18
10.Mohir (Jovon)                   15   5  2  8  30-50  17  [P]
11.Barqcī (Hisor)                  14   4  1  9  23-28  13
12.Şohmansur (Duşanbe)             15   0  2 13  10-60   2

Round 17
[Sep 25]
Hulbuk        -  Ravşan Z     
Saroykamar    -  Vahdat       
Mohir         -  Şohmansur    
Barqcī        -  Isfara       
[Sep 26]
Ravşan K      -  Pançşer      
Hosilot       -  Esxata       

Round 18
[Sep 29]
Şohmansur     -  Barqcī       
Vahdat        -  Mohir        
Hulbuk        -  Saroykamar   
[Sep 30]
Ravşan Z      -  Esxata       
Pançşer       -  Hosilot      
Isfara        -  Ravşan K     

Round 19
[Oct 3]
Mohir         -  Hulbuk       
Barqcī        -  Vahdat       
[Oct 4]
Saroykamar    -  Ravşan Z     
Ravşan K      -  Şohmansur    
Hosilot       -  Isfara       
Esxata        -  Pançşer      

Round 20
[Oct 7]
Şohmansur     -  Hosilot      
Vahdat        -  Ravşan K     
Hulbuk        -  Barqcī       
Saroykamar    -  Mohir        
[Oct 8]
Ravşan Z      -  Pançşer      
Isfara        -  Esxata       

Round 21
[Oct 10]
Barqcī        -  Saroykamar   
Ravşan K      -  Hulbuk       
Hosilot       -  Vahdat       
[Oct 11]
Mohir         -  Ravşan Z     
Esxata        -  Şohmansur    
Pançşer       -  Isfara       

Round 22 [Oct 17]
Ravşan Z      -  Isfara       
Şohmansur     -  Pançşer      
Vahdat        -  Esxata       
Hulbuk        -  Hosilot      
Saroykamar    -  Ravşan K     
Mohir         -  Barqcī       


2019

list of champions.

list of cup winners.


About this document

Prepared and maintained by Karel Stokkermans for the Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation

Author: Karel Stokkermans
Last updated: 17 Sep 2020

(C) Copyright Karel Stokkermans and RSSSF 2020
You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All rights reserved.