USA 2014


Major League Soccer (Division 1)

Major League Soccer

Regular Season | Championship Playoff

Regular Season

Final Tables:

Eastern Conference
 1.DC United                  34  17  8  9  52-37  59  Eastern Semifinals
 2.New England Revolution     34  17  4 13  51-46  55  Eastern Semifinals
 3.Columbus Crew              34  14 10 10  52-42  52  Eastern Semifinals
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 4.New York Red Bulls         34  13 11 10  55-50  50  Wild Card Games
 5.Sporting Kansas City       34  14  7 13  48-41  49  Wild Card Games
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 6.Philadelphia Union         34  10 12 12  51-51  42
 7.Toronto FC                 34  11  8 15  44-54  41
 8.Houston Dynamo             34  11  6 17  39-58  39
 9.Chicago Fire               34   6 18 10  41-51  36
10.Montreal Impact            34   6 10 18  38-58  28

Western Conference
 1.Seattle Sounders           34  20  4 10  65-50  64  Western Semifinals
 2.Los Angeles Galaxy         34  17 10  7  69-37  61  Western Semifinals
 3.Real Salt Lake             34  15 11  8  54-39  56  Western Semifinals
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 4.FC Dallas                  34  16  6 12  55-45  54  Wild Card Games
 5.Vancouver Whitecaps        34  12 14  8  42-40  50  Wild Card Games
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 6.Portland Timbers           34  12 13  9  61-52  49
 7.Chivas USA                 34   9  6 19  29-61  33
 8.Colorado Rapids            34   8  8 18  43-62  32
 9.San Jose Earthquakes       34   6 12 16  35-50  30

[Mar 8]
Seattle Sounders       1-0 Sporting Kansas City   
DC United              0-3 Columbus Crew          
Vancouver Whitecaps    4-1 New York Red Bulls     
FC Dallas              3-2 Montreal Impact        
Houston Dynamo         4-0 New England Revolution 
Los Angeles Galaxy     0-1 Real Salt Lake          
Portland Timbers       1-1 Philadelphia Union     
[Mar 9]
Chivas USA             3-2 Chicago Fire           

[Mar 15]
New York Red Bulls     1-1 Colorado Rapids        
Philadelphia Union     1-0 New England Revolution 
Seattle Sounders       1-2 Toronto FC             
Houston Dynamo         1-0 Montreal Impact        
Sporting Kansas City   1-1 FC Dallas              
San Jose Earthquakes   3-3 Real Salt Lake         
[Mar 16]
Portland Timbers       1-1 Chicago Fire           
Chivas USA             1-1 Vancouver Whitecaps    

[Mar 22]
New England Revolution 0-0 Vancouver Whitecaps    
Toronto FC             1-0 DC United              
Real Salt Lake         1-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Colorado Rapids        2-0 Portland Timbers       
Columbus Crew          2-1 Philadelphia Union     
FC Dallas              3-1 Chivas USA             
Sporting Kansas City   1-0 San Jose Earthquakes   
[Mar 23]
Montreal Impact        0-2 Seattle Sounders       
Chicago Fire           1-1 New York Red Bulls     

[Mar 29]
Philadelphia Union     1-1 Montreal Impact        
DC United              2-2 Chicago Fire           
Colorado Rapids        2-3 Sporting Kansas City   
Vancouver Whitecaps    2-1 Houston Dynamo         
FC Dallas              2-1 Portland Timbers       
Real Salt Lake         3-0 Toronto FC             
Seattle Sounders       1-2 Columbus Crew          
San Jose Earthquakes   1-2 New England Revolution 
[Mar 30]
New York Red Bulls     1-1 Chivas USA             

[Apr 5]
Portland Timbers       4-4 Seattle Sounders       
Montreal Impact        2-2 New York Red Bulls     
Chicago Fire           2-2 Philadelphia Union     
Columbus Crew          0-2 Toronto FC             
Vancouver Whitecaps    1-2 Colorado Rapids        
DC United              2-0 New England Revolution 
Houston Dynamo         1-4 FC Dallas              
Sporting Kansas City   0-0 Real Salt Lake         
[Apr 6]
Chivas USA             0-3 Los Angeles Galaxy     

[Apr 12]
Montreal Impact        1-1 Chicago Fire           
Philadelphia Union     2-2 Real Salt Lake         
Toronto FC             0-1 Colorado Rapids        
New England Revolution 2-0 Houston Dynamo         
DC United              1-0 New York Red Bulls     
FC Dallas              2-3 Seattle Sounders       
Los Angeles Galaxy     1-0 Vancouver Whitecaps    
Portland Timbers       1-1 Chivas USA             
[Apr 13]
San Jose Earthquakes   1-1 Columbus Crew          

[Apr 16]
New York Red Bulls     2-1 Philadelphia Union     

[Apr 19]
Chicago Fire           1-1 New England Revolution 
Philadelphia Union     0-0 Houston Dynamo         
Colorado Rapids        0-0 San Jose Earthquakes   
Vancouver Whitecaps    2-2 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Columbus Crew          1-1 DC United              
FC Dallas              2-1 Toronto FC             
Sporting Kansas City   4-0 Montreal Impact        
Real Salt Lake         1-0 Portland Timbers       
Chivas USA             1-2 Seattle Sounders       

[Apr 23]
New York Red Bulls     4-0 Houston Dynamo         

[Apr 26]
Montreal Impact        1-0 Philadelphia Union     
Seattle Sounders       4-1 Colorado Rapids        
DC United              4-1 FC Dallas              
Columbus Crew          1-1 New York Red Bulls     
New England Revolution 2-0 Sporting Kansas City   
Real Salt Lake         2-2 Vancouver Whitecaps    
San Jose Earthquakes   1-0 Chivas USA             
[Apr 27]
Houston Dynamo         1-1 Portland Timbers       

[May 3]
Toronto FC             1-2 New England Revolution 
Vancouver Whitecaps    3-2 San Jose Earthquakes   
Chicago Fire           2-3 Real Salt Lake         
Colorado Rapids        1-0 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Seattle Sounders       2-1 Philadelphia Union     
Chivas USA             1-4 Houston Dynamo         
Portland Timbers       3-2 DC United              
[May 4]
FC Dallas              0-1 New York Red Bulls     
Sporting Kansas City   2-0 Columbus Crew          

[May 7]
Houston Dynamo         1-0 Columbus Crew          
Seattle Sounders       2-1 FC Dallas              
San Jose Earthquakes   0-0 Colorado Rapids        

[May 10]
Montreal Impact        0-3 Sporting Kansas City   
Philadelphia Union     0-1 DC United              
New York Red Bulls     4-5 Chicago Fire           
Columbus Crew          0-1 Vancouver Whitecaps    
San Jose Earthquakes   2-1 FC Dallas              
[May 11]
Portland Timbers       1-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Colorado Rapids        1-3 Chivas USA             
New England Revolution 5-0 Seattle Sounders       
Houston Dynamo         2-5 Real Salt Lake         

[May 14]
Sporting Kansas City   1-2 Philadelphia Union     

[May 17]
Toronto FC             2-0 New York Red Bulls     
DC United              1-1 Montreal Impact        
Philadelphia Union     3-5 New England Revolution 
FC Dallas              1-1 Chivas USA             
Houston Dynamo         1-0 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Real Salt Lake         2-1 Colorado Rapids        
Seattle Sounders       1-0 San Jose Earthquakes   
Portland Timbers       3-3 Columbus Crew          
[May 18]
Chicago Fire           2-1 Sporting Kansas City   

[May 21]
DC United              2-0 Houston Dynamo         
Los Angeles Galaxy     2-1 FC Dallas              

[May 23]
Sporting Kansas City   2-2 Toronto FC             
[May 24]
New York Red Bulls     1-2 Portland Timbers       
Vancouver Whitecaps    2-2 Seattle Sounders       
Columbus Crew          2-0 Chicago Fire           
New England Revolution 2-1 DC United              
Colorado Rapids        4-1 Montreal Impact        
Real Salt Lake         0-0 FC Dallas              
[May 25]
Los Angeles Galaxy     4-1 Philadelphia Union     
San Jose Earthquakes   3-0 Houston Dynamo         

[May 27]
Sporting Kansas City   1-1 New York Red Bulls     
[May 28]
Chivas USA             0-2 Portland Timbers       

[May 31]
Seattle Sounders       4-0 Real Salt Lake         
Toronto FC             3-2 Columbus Crew          
DC United              1-0 Sporting Kansas City   
Montreal Impact        2-0 New England Revolution 
FC Dallas              1-2 San Jose Earthquakes   
Chivas USA             0-3 Philadelphia Union     
[Jun 1]
Chicago Fire           1-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Colorado Rapids        3-0 Houston Dynamo         
Portland Timbers       3-4 Vancouver Whitecaps    

[Jun 4]
Colorado Rapids        0-0 Chicago Fire           
Columbus Crew          1-1 Real Salt Lake         

[Jun 6]
Houston Dynamo         0-2 Sporting Kansas City   
[Jun 7]
Toronto FC             1-0 San Jose Earthquakes   
DC United              0-0 Columbus Crew          
Philadelphia Union     3-3 Vancouver Whitecaps    
Chicago Fire           2-3 Seattle Sounders       
FC Dallas              3-2 Colorado Rapids        
Real Salt Lake         1-3 Portland Timbers       
[Jun 8]
New England Revolution 0-2 New York Red Bulls     
Los Angeles Galaxy     1-1 Chivas USA             

[Jun 11]
Montreal Impact        2-4 DC United              
Portland Timbers       2-2 FC Dallas              

[Jun 25]
Vancouver Whitecaps    0-0 Montreal Impact        

[Jun 27]
New York Red Bulls     2-2 Toronto FC             
Portland Timbers       0-1 Sporting Kansas City   
[Jun 28]
DC United              0-1 Seattle Sounders       
New England Revolution 1-3 Philadelphia Union     
Colorado Rapids        2-0 Vancouver Whitecaps    
San Jose Earthquakes   0-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Chivas USA             1-0 Real Salt Lake         
[Jun 29]
Columbus Crew          0-0 FC Dallas              
Montreal Impact        3-0 Houston Dynamo         

[Jul 2]
Chicago Fire           1-1 Toronto FC             
San Jose Earthquakes   0-1 Chivas USA             

[Jul 4]
Houston Dynamo         2-2 New York Red Bulls     
FC Dallas              2-1 Philadelphia Union     
Colorado Rapids        1-1 Columbus Crew          
Real Salt Lake         2-1 New England Revolution 
Los Angeles Galaxy     2-2 Portland Timbers       
[Jul 5]
Toronto FC             1-2 DC United              
Vancouver Whitecaps    1-0 Seattle Sounders       
Chivas USA             1-0 Montreal Impact        
[Jul 6]
Sporting Kansas City   1-1 Chicago Fire           

[Jul 11]
San Jose Earthquakes   1-2 DC United              
[Jul 12]
Toronto FC             4-2 Houston Dynamo         
Philadelphia Union     3-3 Colorado Rapids        
New York Red Bulls     4-1 Columbus Crew          
Montreal Impact        1-2 Sporting Kansas City   
New England Revolution 0-1 Chicago Fire           
Vancouver Whitecaps    1-3 Chivas USA             
Los Angeles Galaxy     1-0 Real Salt Lake         
[Jul 13]
Seattle Sounders       2-0 Portland Timbers       

[Jul 16]
Philadelphia Union     3-1 New York Red Bulls     
Columbus Crew          1-2 Sporting Kansas City   
Toronto FC             1-1 Vancouver Whitecaps    
Los Angeles Galaxy     5-1 New England Revolution 

[Jul 18]
Portland Timbers       2-1 Colorado Rapids        
[Jul 19]
Sporting Kansas City   2-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     
New York Red Bulls     1-1 San Jose Earthquakes   
Columbus Crew          2-1 Montreal Impact        
Chicago Fire           1-1 Philadelphia Union     
Houston Dynamo         2-2 Toronto FC             
FC Dallas              2-0 New England Revolution 
Real Salt Lake         1-1 Vancouver Whitecaps    
[Jul 20]
DC United              3-1 Chivas USA             

[Jul 23]
San Jose Earthquakes   5-1 Chicago Fire           
[Jul 24]
Real Salt Lake         3-1 Montreal Impact        

[Jul 25]
Colorado Rapids        3-0 Chivas USA             
[Jul 26]
Toronto FC             1-2 Sporting Kansas City   
New England Revolution 1-2 Columbus Crew          
[Jul 27]
Vancouver Whitecaps    2-2 FC Dallas              
Montreal Impact        2-3 Portland Timbers       
[Jul 28]
Seattle Sounders       0-3 Los Angeles Galaxy     

[Jul 30]
DC United              3-0 Toronto FC             
New England Revolution 3-0 Colorado Rapids        
Chicago Fire           0-0 Vancouver Whitecaps    
Real Salt Lake         1-1 New York Red Bulls     

[Aug 1]
Sporting Kansas City   1-1 Philadelphia Union     
[Aug 2]
Los Angeles Galaxy     3-1 Portland Timbers       
Montreal Impact        0-2 Toronto FC             
New York Red Bulls     2-1 New England Revolution 
Chicago Fire           1-1 Columbus Crew          
Colorado Rapids        0-1 Real Salt Lake         
San Jose Earthquakes   1-0 Seattle Sounders       
[Aug 3]
Houston Dynamo         1-0 DC United              
Chivas USA             0-1 FC Dallas              

[Aug 8]
Los Angeles Galaxy     2-2 San Jose Earthquakes   
[Aug 9]
Philadelphia Union     2-1 Montreal Impact        
Columbus Crew          2-3 Toronto FC             
FC Dallas              3-1 Colorado Rapids        
Real Salt Lake         3-0 DC United              
Portland Timbers       2-0 Chivas USA             
[Aug 10]
Vancouver Whitecaps    2-0 Sporting Kansas City   
Chicago Fire           1-0 New York Red Bulls     
Seattle Sounders       2-0 Houston Dynamo         

[Aug 15]
Houston Dynamo         2-0 Philadelphia Union     
[Aug 16]
Real Salt Lake         2-1 Seattle Sounders       
Montreal Impact        1-0 Chicago Fire           
New England Revolution 1-1 Portland Timbers       
Columbus Crew          4-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Sporting Kansas City   4-1 Toronto FC             
Chivas USA             0-0 Vancouver Whitecaps    
San Jose Earthquakes   0-5 FC Dallas              
[Aug 17]
DC United              4-2 Colorado Rapids        

[Aug 20]
Colorado Rapids        3-4 Los Angeles Galaxy     
Seattle Sounders       1-1 San Jose Earthquakes   

[Aug 22]
FC Dallas              2-1 Real Salt Lake         
[Aug 23]
Toronto FC             2-2 Chicago Fire           
New York Red Bulls     4-2 Montreal Impact        
New England Revolution 1-0 Chivas USA             
Columbus Crew          3-0 Houston Dynamo         
Sporting Kansas City   0-3 DC United              
Los Angeles Galaxy     2-0 Vancouver Whitecaps    
[Aug 24]
Portland Timbers       2-4 Seattle Sounders       
Philadelphia Union     4-2 San Jose Earthquakes   

[Aug 27]
Los Angeles Galaxy     4-1 DC United              

[Aug 29]
Sporting Kansas City   1-3 Houston Dynamo         
[Aug 30]
Seattle Sounders       1-0 Colorado Rapids        
Toronto FC             0-3 New England Revolution 
Montreal Impact        2-0 Columbus Crew          
Chicago Fire           1-0 FC Dallas              
Vancouver Whitecaps    0-3 Portland Timbers       
San Jose Earthquakes   1-1 Real Salt Lake         
[Aug 31]
DC United              2-0 New York Red Bulls     
Chivas USA             0-3 Los Angeles Galaxy     

[Sep 3]
Philadelphia Union     1-0 Toronto FC             
New England Revolution 3-1 Sporting Kansas City   
Chivas USA             2-4 Seattle Sounders       

[Sep 5]
Los Angeles Galaxy     6-0 Colorado Rapids        
[Sep 6]
Toronto FC             0-2 Philadelphia Union     
New York Red Bulls     2-1 Sporting Kansas City   
Houston Dynamo         3-2 Montreal Impact        
Vancouver Whitecaps    0-0 DC United              
Real Salt Lake         2-1 FC Dallas              
[Sep 7]
Columbus Crew          3-0 Chivas USA             
Portland Timbers       3-3 San Jose Earthquakes   
New England Revolution 2-1 Chicago Fire           

[Sep 10]
Montreal Impact        2-2 Los Angeles Galaxy     
New York Red Bulls     1-0 DC United              
Vancouver Whitecaps    2-0 San Jose Earthquakes   

[Sep 12]
Seattle Sounders       3-2 Real Salt Lake         
Chivas USA             0-4 Sporting Kansas City   
[Sep 13]
Philadelphia Union     2-2 New York Red Bulls     
New England Revolution 2-1 Montreal Impact        
Houston Dynamo         2-2 Columbus Crew          
FC Dallas              2-1 Vancouver Whitecaps    
Chicago Fire           1-1 Toronto FC             
Colorado Rapids        2-2 Portland Timbers       
[Sep 14]
San Jose Earthquakes   1-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     

[Sep 19]
Real Salt Lake         5-1 Colorado Rapids        
[Sep 20]
Portland Timbers       3-0 Vancouver Whitecaps    
Philadelphia Union     0-0 Houston Dynamo         
Columbus Crew          1-0 New England Revolution 
Montreal Impact        2-0 San Jose Earthquakes   
New York Red Bulls     4-1 Seattle Sounders       
Chicago Fire           3-3 DC United              
Los Angeles Galaxy     2-1 FC Dallas              
[Sep 21]
Toronto FC             3-0 Chivas USA             

[Sep 24]
FC Dallas              3-1 Seattle Sounders       

[Sep 26]
Sporting Kansas City   2-3 New England Revolution 
[Sep 27]
Toronto FC             3-2 Portland Timbers       
DC United              1-0 Philadelphia Union     
Seattle Sounders       4-2 Chivas USA             
Vancouver Whitecaps    2-1 Real Salt Lake         
Columbus Crew          2-0 Montreal Impact        
Colorado Rapids        1-1 San Jose Earthquakes   
[Sep 28]
Houston Dynamo         2-0 Chicago Fire           
Los Angeles Galaxy     4-0 New York Red Bulls     

[Oct 2]
Philadelphia Union     1-1 Chicago Fire           

[Oct 3]
DC United              0-0 Sporting Kansas City   
[Oct 4]
New York Red Bulls     1-0 Houston Dynamo         
Vancouver Whitecaps    2-0 FC Dallas              
New England Revolution 2-1 Columbus Crew          
Los Angeles Galaxy     3-0 Toronto FC             
San Jose Earthquakes   1-2 Portland Timbers       
[Oct 5]
Colorado Rapids        1-4 Seattle Sounders       
Chicago Fire           0-0 Montreal Impact        
Chivas USA             1-0 Real Salt Lake         

[Oct 8]
Toronto FC             0-1 Houston Dynamo         
Portland Timbers       3-0 San Jose Earthquakes   

[Oct 10]
Sporting Kansas City   2-0 Chicago Fire           
[Oct 11]
Montreal Impact        2-2 New England Revolution 
Seattle Sounders       0-1 Vancouver Whitecaps    
New York Red Bulls     3-1 Toronto FC             
Philadelphia Union     2-3 Columbus Crew          
Real Salt Lake         2-0 San Jose Earthquakes   
Chivas USA             2-1 Colorado Rapids        
[Oct 12]
Houston Dynamo         1-3 DC United              
FC Dallas              2-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     

[Oct 16]
Houston Dynamo         1-2 New England Revolution 
[Oct 17]
Portland Timbers       0-0 Real Salt Lake         
[Oct 18]
Colorado Rapids        0-1 FC Dallas              
Toronto FC             1-1 Montreal Impact        
DC United              2-1 Chicago Fire           
Philadelphia Union     2-1 Sporting Kansas City   
San Jose Earthquakes   0-0 Vancouver Whitecaps    
[Oct 19]
New York Red Bulls     1-3 Columbus Crew          
Los Angeles Galaxy     2-2 Seattle Sounders       

[Oct 22]
Real Salt Lake         2-0 Chivas USA             

[Oct 24]
Chicago Fire           2-1 Houston Dynamo         
[Oct 25]
Montreal Impact        1-1 DC United              
Seattle Sounders       2-0 Los Angeles Galaxy     
FC Dallas              0-2 Portland Timbers       
New England Revolution 1-0 Toronto FC             
Vancouver Whitecaps    1-0 Colorado Rapids        
[Oct 26]
Chivas USA             1-0 San Jose Earthquakes   
Columbus Crew          2-1 Philadelphia Union     
Sporting Kansas City   0-2 New York Red Bulls     

Final Tables:

Eastern Conference
 1.DC United                  34  17  8  9  52-37  59  Eastern Semifinals
 2.New England Revolution     34  17  4 13  51-46  55  Eastern Semifinals
 3.Columbus Crew              34  14 10 10  52-42  52  Eastern Semifinals
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 4.New York Red Bulls         34  13 11 10  55-50  50  Wild Card Games
 5.Sporting Kansas City       34  14  7 13  48-41  49  Wild Card Games
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 6.Philadelphia Union         34  10 12 12  51-51  42
 7.Toronto FC                 34  11  8 15  44-54  41
 8.Houston Dynamo             34  11  6 17  39-58  39
 9.Chicago Fire               34   6 18 10  41-51  36
10.Montreal Impact            34   6 10 18  38-58  28

Western Conference
 1.Seattle Sounders           34  20  4 10  65-50  64  Western Semifinals
 2.Los Angeles Galaxy         34  17 10  7  69-37  61  Western Semifinals
 3.Real Salt Lake             34  15 11  8  54-39  56  Western Semifinals
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 4.FC Dallas                  34  16  6 12  55-45  54  Wild Card Games
 5.Vancouver Whitecaps        34  12 14  8  42-40  50  Wild Card Games
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 6.Portland Timbers           34  12 13  9  61-52  49
 7.Chivas USA                 34   9  6 19  29-61  33
 8.Colorado Rapids            34   8  8 18  43-62  32
 9.San Jose Earthquakes       34   6 12 16  35-50  30


Championship Playoff

Wild Card Games

[Oct 29]
FC Dallas              2-1 Vancouver Whitecaps    
[Oct 30]
New York Red Bulls     2-1 Sporting Kansas City   

NB: New York Red Bulls enter Eastern Semifinals;
    FC Dallas enter Western Semifinals

Eastern Semifinals

First Legs
[Nov 1]
Columbus Crew          2-4 New England Revolution 
[Nov 2]
New York Red Bulls     2-0 DC United              

Second Legs
[Nov 8]
DC United              2-1 New York Red Bulls     
[Nov 9]
New England Revolution 3-1 Columbus Crew          

Eastern Conference Final

First Leg [Nov 23]
New York Red Bulls     1-2 New England Revolution 

Second Leg [Nov 29]
New England Revolution 2-2 New York Red Bulls     

Western Semifinals

First Legs
[Nov 1]
Real Salt Lake         0-0 Los Angeles Galaxy     
[Nov 2]
FC Dallas              1-1 Seattle Sounders       

Second Legs
[Nov 9]
Los Angeles Galaxy     5-0 Real Salt Lake         
[Nov 10]
Seattle Sounders       0-0 FC Dallas              

Western Conference Final

First Leg [Nov 23]
Los Angeles Galaxy     1-0 Seattle Sounders       

Second Leg [Nov 30]
Seattle Sounders       2-1 Los Angeles Galaxy     

MLS Cup 2013

[Dec 7]
Los Angeles Galaxy     2-1 New England Revolution [aet]

2013

list of professional first division champions

list of (all) league winners (leaguewise)

list of (all) league winners (yearwise)

list of us open cup winners

list of (all) cup winners

MLS all-time table


About this document

Prepared and maintained by Karel Stokkermans for the Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation

Author: Karel Stokkermans
Last updated: 11 Dec 2014

(C) Copyright Karel Stokkermans and RSSSF 2014
You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All rights reserved.